Wednesday, 28 May 2014

3. Bob Jay - flight engineer

Background
Robert Alfred Jay, the youngest of three children, was born on the 3rd April, 1919, in Spencer Street in the New Clee area of Grimsby. His sister Phyllis was five when he was born and his brother Fred was three. It was 12 weeks before the Treaty of Versailles finally sealed the peace in Europe and six months before his dad was demobbed after 4 years in the army. It was also just 2 months before Alcock and Brown's historic transatlantic flight.

Bob's parents, Fred and Sarah, had moved to Grimsby via Leicester from their home town of Great Yarmouth in Norfolk in search of employment opportunities and the thriving fishing industry in Grimsby provided these. Fred was a cobbler and he had soon established his own business with a small workshop on the corner of Rutland Street.

L to R: Bob, Phyllis & Fred outside 35 Tyrolean SquareGreat
Yarmouth, home of their grandparents Robert & Mary Jay
Bob attended St. John's School, linked with St. John The Evangelist Church on Cleethorpes Road, from the age of five until he was fourteen.

Bob (middle, front row) at St. John's School, Grimsby, in about 1929

 He was an active boy and when he was fourteen he and a friend cycled from Grimsby to Great Yarmouth, sleeping in the open air on the way.  He also joined a boxing club and was even asked at short notice to take part in a fight one evening. He found the atmosphere of beer and smoke overwhelming and after three rounds of what he later described as 'Hell on Earth' he decided it wasn't the career for him.

Trying out his bike, about 1931


A short boxing career! Bob is on the right in the middle row.






















He left school shortly after his 14th birthday and on the 23rd April, 1933, still wearing short trousers under his overalls, he started a seven year apprenticeship with Grimsby Motors.


Bob's apprenticeship indenture - signed 6 months after commencement
He was released a year early, nine days after his 20th birthday, on the 12th April 1939 as a fully qualified motor mechanic and joined the local fire brigade.

Early release, 12th April, 1939

3rd June 1939
Along with all young men of 20 and 21 Bob had to register at the local Ministry of Labour office under the terms of the Military Training Act (1939). This act, passed an the 26th May 1939 in the face of imminent conflict in Europe, required all men born between 4th June 1918 and 3rd June 1919 to register, after which they were to be called up for 6 month's full-time military training, and then transferred to the Reserve. It is not hard to imagine how his parents would have felt having lived through the horrors of the 'Great War'.
To ensure that the call up did not take men away from vital industries and services the Government introduced a "Schedule of Reserved Occupations" - men meeting the age criteria laid out in the schedule were "reserved in their present occupation". As a full-time fireman Bob met the criteria in the schedule and remained in civil life.

1939-42
Being politically aware Bob had understood the threat posed by fascism since before the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and had followed closely the rise of Hitler in Germany during the 1930s. It was inevitable that he would join the armed forces and play his part at some stage.

1936 Nuremberg Rally

By 1942 German troops had advanced as far as Stalingrad, the mass murder of Jews was well under way and the Japanese were overwhelming large areas in the Far East. There was wide-spread feeling in Britain that the fight should be taken to the enemy in Europe, rather than appearing to await the outcome of the struggle between Germany and the Soviet Union, and Bob probably saw joining Bomber Command as the way to do this - and maybe he found the prospect of flying quite appealing too. I am sure it had nothing to do with the destruction of his dad's workshop in a German bombing raid early in the war!

Just before going to war
30th September 1942
As the war progressed there was an increasing need for men and women to join the armed forces and Bob volunteered to join the RAFVR (Volunteer Reserve). He was instructed to attend RAF Padgate, near Warrington, where he was assessed and interviewed by No. 10 A.C.S.B. (Aviation Candidate Selection Board). His service record shows that at the end of the process he was "Not recommended for aircrew duties", a decision generally made for 'aptitude, educational or medical' reasons. He therefore remained in civil life.

The reason for this recommendation does not appear on his record of service but the family story is that it was because of an elevated temperature, something he had always had, but we will never know for sure. Bob did talk about his lack of mathematical skill preventing him from becoming a pilot, something he was keen to do, and this must have been part of the reason he was so desperate for his children to do well at school. Although the majority of pilots (and navigators and bomb aimers) were drawn from ex-grammar school and university volunteers, I recently met the son of a pilot whose father had a similar background to Bob, having left school at 14 and completed a trade apprenticeship.

28th July 1943
Undeterred, Bob reapplied ten months later and was instructed to attend RAF Doncaster where he was assessed and interviewed again, this time by No. 1 A.C.S.B. He was successful and was "recommended for training as a Flight Engineer". He was instructed to continue in civil life until further notice.

2nd/3rd September 1943
A few weeks later he was instructed to return to RAF Doncaster for two day's assessment, which included a medical which he passed with 'medical category grade 1'. He was enlisted 'D.P.E.' (for the 'Duration of Present Emergency') and 'mustered' as ACH/F.Eng (Aircrafthand/Flight Engineer) with the rank of Aircraftsman Second Class (AC2) grade A (the lowest grade).
Having sworn his allegiance to King and Country he was issued with service number 1596172, placed on reserve and once again instructed to return to civil life until further notice.

With fellow members of the Grimsby Fire Brigade, some time before Jan 1944
All work and no play .......


He later received a letter from the Air Ministry to welcome him into the R.A.F. and advise him on preparation for his 'Air Force career':

A 'welcome to the R.A.F.' letter from the Air Ministry
 

17th January 1944
The call-up came in the New Year and on the 17th of January 1944 he reported for five weeks basic training at No.3 A.C.R.C. (Aircrew Receiving Centre) at RAF Regent's Park in London. In the first few days he would have:
  • a regulation hair cut
  • a thorough dental check, at which time he lost most of his top teeth
  • received inoculations against diphtheria and typhoid - it seems he missed out on the smallpox inoculation normally given at this stage
  • received basic RAF kit and 'Service Dress' uniform, commonly referred to as "Best Blues", including the white cap insert, clearly visible later on his wedding pictures, that identified him as trainee aircrew.
He would have been instructed to mark every item of kit with his service number and be expected to keep every item spotlessly clean in readiness for regular inspection.

'Air diagram 1385' with instructions for inspections and the wearing of equipment.
Over the next few weeks he faced a rigorous daily routine of fatigues, inspections, training drills, lectures and assessments. I can't imagine Bob taking to this very well! As an AC2 (grade A), Trade Group V (Aircrafthand/Flight Engineer) his pay was 3 shillings per day plus sixpence per day war pay - considerably less than his pay as a fireman but he did not, of course, have to pay for his upkeep. He would collect his pay at the fortnightly pay parade.
The piece of kit that would have been the starkest reminder of the perilous nature of the task ahead was the pair of identity discs. Manufactured from fire-resistant material and with the airman's religion clearly punched between his service number and name, none of the recruits could have been in any doubt why they had to wear these once they were flying.

One of Bob's identity discs
.
Id. card, discs and service & pay books (see Appendices VI, VII & VIII)


26th February 1944
Having completed the first stage of his training Bob was then posted to No. 7 I.T.W. (Initial Training Wing) at RAF Newquay, in Cornwall. The purpose of this training was to 'lay a foundation of discipline, physical fitness and mental alertness' and provide a 'sound basic knowledge of the RAF', all explained in the pamphlet "You are going to be a Flight Engineer".



See Appendix I


The I.T.W. syllabus included such things as:
  • aircraft recognition
  • air reconnaissance
  • armaments - “To introduce cadets to the use of firearms and the precautions necessary for their safe handling”
  • engines
  • instruments
  • meteorology
  • navigation
  • principles of flight
  • signals
One of Bob's exercise book, dated Feb - March 1944
This exercise book contained only 38 pages but on the cover Bob has written "Signals, Aircraft Rec, Armaments, Mathematics" - there was clearly no time for much depth, but there are 9 pages of closely written notes on the Browning .303 Machine Gun. The mathematics is quite basic, though probably not for someone who had left school 11 years earlier aged 14, but there has obviously been some effort to make the problem-solving 'relevant'. For example:
  • percentages - '.....add 1.75% to airspeed for every 1000 feet of added altitude......'
  • moments - problems related to bomb weights and movement of crew fore and aft (I'm not sure how many navigators weighed 120 lb though!)
  • distance travelled, bomb load, fuel consumption, time, etc 
    See Appendix IX for some pages from this exercise book




    Along with other trainees Bob would have been issued with his 'War Service uniform' ("Battledress") and, later in the course, with flying clothing, which was needed for training purposes. This included:
    • helmet, with oxygen and communication mask
    • goggles
    • flying suit
    • Mae West (life jacket)
    • parachute harness

    With fellow trainees. Bob is 3rd from left, middle row.

    Trainees were assessed throughout the course and examinations had to be passed prior to further posting. Bob successfully completed the course and his next posting was an attachment  to RAF Wrexham (from the 8th to the 15th April 1944) but it is not clear why, especially as RAF Wrexham was used for night fighter training.



    Service record: note the entries dated 8th & 15th April
    Bob married Vera Stephenson in St James Church, now Grimsby Minster, on the 19th April 1944, about a year after it had been badly damaged by a German bomb and 4 days after returning to Newquay from Wrexham.

    Marriage notice in Grimsby Evening Telegraph, 1944


    Bob and Vera were married at St James Church, Grimsby on 19th April 1944 - note the white cap insert

    St James Church after an air raid, July 1943

    May 1944 (exact date not known)
    Having completed his I.T.W. training and attachment to RAF Wrexham Bob was posted to No. 5 S.o.T.T. (School of Technical Training) at RAF Locking near Weston-super-Mare where he carried out the first phase of his 'trade' training as a Flight Engineer. This phase consisted of ten weeks of 'preliminary' training on airframes, engines, carburettors, electrics, instruments, hydraulics and propellers. This was followed by one week's leave.

    12th July 1944
    He was posted to No. 4 S.of T.T. at RAF St Athan in Glamorgan, S. Wales to complete the second and third phases of his flight engineer training. Phase 2 consisted of 7 weeks of 'intermediate' training in engines, airframes, hydraulics, propellers, instruments and electrics, followed by one week's leave. Having completed this phase of the course Bob was reclassified on the 1st of September as Aircraftsman Second Class (AC2) grade B. His pay would have increased from 3 shillings a day to 5 shillings a day (from 15p to 25p).

    Actual notes and diagrams from a trainee Flight Engineer (Courtesy of the late Clifford Leach)
    The final phase consisted of 7 weeks 'advanced' training on a specific service type aircraft and included a week at the factory of an aircraft manufacturer ('Makers Course') but there is no record of this in Bob's service record. This was followed by a week of written and oral exams.

    Trainees at St Athan


    13th November 1944
    Having successfully completed the course and passed his exams Bob attended a 'passing out' parade where he was presented with his Flight Engineer's brevet and promoted to the rank of Sergeant, the minimum rank for aircrew. His pay was increased to 12 shillings (60p) a day. If Bob had achieved a mark of 70% or more in the exams then he would have been considered for a commission - his mark was 66.1%.

    Sergeant Robert Jay, November 1944. Note the new F/E brevet and Sergeant's stripes
    Confirmation stamp in Bob's Flying Log Book


    25th November 1944

    Log book entries showing Bob's flights with S/L Chipling

    The final step in Bob's training involved a posting to 1669 Heavy Conversion Unit (H.C.U.) at RAF Langar where he became part of the crew of a Lancaster bomber (chapter 2). He arrived a few weeks before the rest of his crew so that he could get some flight training in and his log book records his first three flights in a Lancaster bomber on the 17th, 18th and 21st of December 1944. His pilot on these flights was S/L Alban Chipling* and they carried out a number of circuits and landings, or 'circuits and bumps' as they were affectionately known, and some three engine landings - practice that was to prove crucial to the crew's survival on one of their operations three months later (see chapter 3a).

    (*Shortly afterwards S/L Chipling was transferred to RAF Hullavington, near Chippenham, where, after a distinguished flying career and only a couple of weeks before the end of the war in Europe, he lost his life in what appears to have been a tragic accident - see chapter 22)

    Bob had a total of just 59 hours flying time, 36 hours daylight and 23 hours night flying, between mid-December and the end of February and only 35 hours of this were 'solo' flights with his crew. Pilots obviously had more flying hours in training, though nowhere near the number required in peacetime.

    The training schedule involved:
    • Familiarisation with the aircraft
    • Circuits and landings
    • Bombing practice
    • Fighter affiliation
    • Cross country flying
    all entered in the log book as a series of numbered exercises. These were often carried out with experienced instructors (normally crew who had completed an operational tour) and then repeated 'solo'.
    Bob's role as Flight Engineer is summarised here:

    Whenever Bob climbed into the aircraft he would have with him his parachute and his emergency repair tool bag and before, during and after every flight he would have to complete a four page Flight Engineer Log.

    Two of the four pages of the Flight Engineer's Log


    The Lancaster Mk VII cockpit
    This clip on YouTube features Ken Duddell, a flight engineer with No.103 Squadron at RAF Elsham, giving a fascinating insight into his role.

    Having successfully completed their H.C.U. training the crew were considered ready for operational duty. Bob was officially declared qualified as a Flight Engineer for the Lancaster Marks I and III with effect from 1st March 1945 and was immediately assigned to No. 72 Base which, as well as Langar, included the airfields RAF Bottesford and RAF Saltby.
    Confirmation of qualification in Log Book


    On the 6th March 1945 Bob and the rest of the crew were posted to RAF Mepal in Cambridgeshire, the home of No. 75(NZ) Squadron,  part of No. 3 Group, Bomber Command. This was an RAF squadron formed from the 'New Zealand Squadron' in 1940 when the N.Z. government made their airmen and aircraft available to the RAF to help with the war effort. It was one of the larger, 3-flight squadrons which, between 1943 and 1944 had about 35 crews. By 1945 it seems that the squadron was practically 'double-manned', with two crews per aircraft, which would explain why Bob and his crew, who were assigned to 'B' Flight, flew in several different aircraft during their tour.

    'B' Flight 75(NZ) Squadron, March 1945

    75(NZ) Squadron, March 1945


    R.A.F. Mepal, photographed by Dick Broadbent D.F.C. in 1943. Mepal is to the north and Sutton to the south.